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The GDS Way and its content is intended for internal use by the GDS community.

Dockerfile guidance

This style guide:

  • provides some conventions for creating production-ready Dockerfiles at GDS
  • supplements the official Dockerfile reference

Using tags and digests in FROM instructions

The FROM instruction specifies the starting image for your Docker image build.

A tag is a short label you can use to reference an image.

For example:

FROM alpine:3.9


  • alpine is the image name
  • 3.9 is the tag

As you cannot rely on the tag pointing to the exact same image over time, you should instead use a digest, which identifies the image by a hash of its contents. This makes sure that you are always referencing the image that you expect.

For example:

FROM alpine@sha256:769fddc7cc2f0a1c35abb2f91432e8beecf83916c421420e6a6da9f8975464b6

Where sha256@769fddc7cc2f0a1c35abb2f91432e8beecf83916c421420e6a6da9f8975464b6 is the unique digest representing the particular variant of the image.

To get the digest, run docker pull <tag>. For example:

$ docker pull alpine:3.9
3.9: Pulling from library/alpine
Digest: sha256:769fddc7cc2f0a1c35abb2f91432e8beecf83916c421420e6a6da9f8975464b6
Status: Image is up-to-date for alpine:3.9

As Dependabot has support for updating FROM lines which use digests, you can still use Dependabot to keep your images up-to-date.

Using multi-stage builds

Using multi-stage builds enables the drastic reduction of image sizes, which in turn decreases the time taken to launch the container. There can be many stages within a Dockerfile. The result is a single layer image which discards the previous unrequired layers that were used in the compilation steps.

As an example;

FROM golang:1.16 AS builder
WORKDIR /go/src/
RUN git clone .
RUN go mod download
RUN go build

FROM alpine:latest
RUN apk --no-cache add ca-certificates
WORKDIR /root/
COPY --from=builder /go/src/ .
COPY --from=builder /go/src/ .
CMD ["./paas-aiven-broker", "-config", "config.json"]

Building from this Dockerfile requires no changes to the existing build process e.g. docker build -t myimage:latest .

It is also possible to stop the build at a specific stage using a command such as docker build --target builder -t myimage:development . which then enables running the container locally to debug the image.

Running programs as process ID (PID) 1

The program running as PID 1 inside a container is responsible for:

  • cleaning up orphaned child processes
  • handling signals
  • returning the exit status from the container

Most programs are unsuited to running as PID 1 inside a container. For example:

  • bash will not pass signals through to its children; for example, SIGTERM will not lead to the container being shut down
  • java exits with an exit status of 143 when sent a SIGTERM, even if the application shuts down cleanly
  • node does not reap orphaned child processes whose parent has exited

Tini provides a program suitable for running as PID 1 inside the container. You can use Tini to avoid the problems highlighted above. Tini is included by default with the Docker runtime or Alpine Linux images.

You can use tini by passing the --init option to Docker when running your container or set Tini as the ENTRYPOINT for your container. For example:

ENTRYPOINT ["tini", "--"]

or for Java programs, to map an exit status of 143 to 0:

ENTRYPOINT ["tini", "-e", "143", "--"]


The instructions RUN, CMD and ENTRYPOINT have 2 forms:

  • freeform text (for example CMD “run -x”)
  • an array-style (for example CMD [“run”, “-x”])

You should use the array-style syntax where possible.

A Linux syscall will directly execute all commands specified using the array-style syntax, without an enclosing subshell. This process is more efficient and removes any ambiguity over how the commands will be interpreted.

In the case of ENTRYPOINT or CMD, using the freeform text syntax means that a shell becomes PID 1 and most programs should not run as PID 1, as explained above.

For more information about the special role of PID 1:

This page was last reviewed on 22 March 2023. It needs to be reviewed again on 22 September 2023 by the page owner #gds-way .
This page was set to be reviewed before 22 September 2023 by the page owner #gds-way. This might mean the content is out of date.