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The GDS Way and its content is intended for internal use by the GDS and CO CDIO communities.

How to store credentials

Depending on how you manage your accounts, you, your team and the service you run may have credentials or other secrets that you need to store securely.

Personal credentials

Personal credentials belong only to you. They uniquely identify you and grant access to your GitHub, AWS, and GOV.UK Signon accounts.

If possible, use the password manager built into your browser. This is simpler than setting up an extra account with a third party and avoids the potential issues below.

If you are unable to use your browser’s password manager then you should use a third-party password manager. This could be necessary if your browser has an accessibility issue, or if you work with multiple browsers.

Third-party password managers used by people at GDS include:

  • 1Password
  • BitWarden - An open source password manager.
  • KeePassXC - An offline password store, which you may want to backup somewhere.
  • QtPass - Another offline store, integrated with Git and GPG / pass.

There is a security trade-off involved in using browser extensions to autofill credentials.

Auto-filling credentials can protect against phishing attacks. Your password manager will refuse to autofill credentials for the wrong site, such as attempting to impersonate However, it can be difficult to implement this functionality securely in an extension.

Team credentials

Credentials sometimes need to be shared across a team or programme. Software repositories (NPM, RubyGems, Maven Central) and admin portals (Fastly, DockerHub) will often have shared credentials.

You should follow the guidance for managing team credentials..

We have no established best practice for storing shared credentials at GDS. Some teams have a “credentials” GitHub repository and use pass or blackbox to store credentials encrypted with GPG.

Warning Make sure you configure the repo as internal or ideally private to help prevent accidental disclosure

Investigate alternatives before adopting GPG-based credential stores for new teams.

  • We cannot revoke access to GPG-based credentials unless we change them. Anyone with access can still decrypt credentials using their local copy of the repo and its commit history.

  • It creates a high barrier to entry as GPG tools are generally difficult to use and key-servers are unreliable.

The GOV.UK Design System and Prototype Kit teams have recently set up a Bitwarden organisation as a replacement for their credentials repository.

Service credentials

Deployed services sometimes need sensitive configuration such as API keys and IP block lists.

Use the secret management feature of your infrastructure or cloud provider e.g. AWS Secrets Manager, HashiCorp Vault. This should make it easy to control and audit access to the credentials.

Older projects in GDS might have a “secrets” repository and use GPG to encrypt files, which are then decrypted during the deployment process. This approach should not be used unless there is no better option.

This page was last reviewed on 2 November 2023. It needs to be reviewed again on 2 May 2024 by the page owner #gds-way .
This page was set to be reviewed before 2 May 2024 by the page owner #gds-way. This might mean the content is out of date.